Effects of Concrete-Representational-Abstract instruction on fractions among low-achieving sixth-grade students



The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of an explicit Concrete-Representational-Abstract (CRA) approach that emphasised conceptual knowledge of fractions on low-achieving sixth-grade students. Participants were 34 sixth-grade students, of which 10 showed low achievement in fractions (LAF) and 24 exhibited typical achievement in fractions (TAF). The explicit CRA intervention resulted in equally large effect sizes for LAF and TAF students. In addition, the large gap in fractions performance between LAF and TAF students, observed at the pre-test time, was significantly bridged at the post-test time. The effect size of the gain in the conceptual knowledge of fractions was large among LAF students. Results are discussed in terms of the CRA instructional effectiveness in fractions. Finally, instruction efficiency issues within diverse general education classrooms are considered.


Fractions, concrete-representational-abstract approach, conceptual knowledge, low-achieving students, CRA effectiveness, instruction efficiency

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26220/une.3376

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Educational Journal of the University of Patras UNESCO Chair | ISSN: 2241-9152 | Department of Educational Sciences and Early Childhood Education University of Patras

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