Higher Education in India: Issues related to Access, Equity, Efficiency, Quality and Internationalization

Kishore M. Joshi, Kinjal V. Ahir


The Indian higher education system is the largest in the world in terms of the number of institutions and the second largest in enrolments. Access to higher education in India has grown tremendously in context of the number of institutions and enrolments. However, the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) is still much lower. Higher education in India faces six types of challenges related to equity each associated with gender, caste, interstate, religion, spatial, and income. In terms of efficiency while rates of returns were higher for higher education levels as compared to the lower levels of education in India, however, the problem of appropriate employment amongst higher education graduates still persists. Despite consistent efforts in enhancing the quality of higher education in India, effective measures are required to make it internationally competitive. Indian higher education will have to address equity, quality and efficiency issues in a pragmatic manner through effective policy framework to become globally competitive and relevant to the labour market demand.


Higher education, India, access, equity, efficiency, quality, internationalization.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26220/aca.2979

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